Risks Relating to Organisational Structure
Tetragon has approved a very broad investment objective and the investment manager has substantial discretion when making investment decisions. In addition, the investment manager’s strategies may not achieve Tetragon’s investment objective.
Tetragon’s listed shares do not carry any voting rights other than limited voting rights in respect of variation of their class rights. Tetragon’s voting shares are owned by Polygon Credit Holdings II Limited which is a non-U.S. affiliate of Tetragon’s investment manager and is ultimately controlled by Reade Griffith and Paddy Dear, who also majority own the investment manager. Pursuant to an agreement between Reade Griffith and Paddy Dear, Reade Griffith is the controller of Tetragon’s voting shares and the investment manager. Tetragon’s voting shares control the composition of the Board of Directors and exercise extensive influence over Tetragon’s business and affairs.
Under Tetragon’s articles of incorporation, a majority of its directors are required to be independent (Independent Directors), satisfying in all material respects the UK Corporate Governance Code definition of that term. However, because the Board of Directors may generally take action only with the approval of five of its directors, the Board of Directors generally are not able to act without the approval of both directors who are affiliated with the holder of Tetragon’s voting shares. The holder of the voting shares has the right to amend Tetragon’s articles of incorporation to change these provisions regarding Independent Directors and to remove a Director from office for any reason. As a result of these provisions, the Independent Directors are limited in their ability to exercise influence over Tetragon’s business and affairs.
Tetragon’s organisational, ownership and investment structure creates significant conflicts of interest that may be resolved in a manner which is not always in the best interests of Tetragon or its shareholders.
Tetragon’s directors and its administrator may have conflicts of interest in the course of their duties.
Tetragon’s ability to pay its expenses and dividends will depend on its earnings, financial condition, fair value of its assets and such other factors that may be relevant from time to time, including limitations under the Companies (Guernsey) Law, 2008, as amended.
Risks Relating to Tetragon’s Investment Manager
Tetragon’s success depends on its continued relationship with its investment manager and its principals. If this relationship were to end or the principals or other key professionals were to depart, it could have a material adverse effect on Tetragon’s business, investments and results of operations.
Tetragon is reliant on the skill and judgment of its investment manager in valuing and determining an appropriate purchase price for its investments. Any determinations of value that differ materially from the values Tetragon realises at the maturity of the investments or upon their disposal will likely have a negative impact on Tetragon and its share price.
Tetragon’s arrangements with its investment manager were negotiated in the context of an affiliated relationship and may contain terms that are less favourable than those which otherwise might have been obtained from unrelated parties in an arm’s-length negotiation.
The holders of Tetragon’s listed shares will not be able to terminate its Investment Management Agreement with the investment manager, and the Investment Management Agreement may only be terminated by Tetragon in limited circumstances.
The liability of Tetragon’s investment manager is limited under Tetragon’s arrangements with it, and Tetragon has agreed to indemnify the investment manager against claims that it may face in connection with such arrangements, which may lead the investment manager to assume greater risks when making investment-related decisions than it otherwise would if investments were being made solely for its own account.
The investment manager does not owe fiduciary duties to Tetragon shareholders. However, these contractual limitations do not constitute a waiver of any obligations that the investment manager has under applicable law, including the U.S. Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and related rules.
The investment manager may devote time and commitment to other activities.
The fees payable to the investment manager are based on changes in Tetragon’s NAV, which will not necessarily correlate to changes in the market value of its listed shares.
Tetragon’s compensation structure with its investment manager may encourage the investment manager to invest in high-risk investments. The management fee payable to the investment manager also creates an incentive for it to make investments and take other actions that increase or maintain Tetragon’s NAV over the near term even though other investments or actions may be more favourable.
The compensation of the investment manager’s personnel contains significant performance-related elements, and poor performance by Tetragon or any other entity for which the investment manager provides services may make it difficult for Tetragon’s investment manager to retain staff.
Tetragon’s investment manager relies on two entities that are part of TFG Asset Management for a broad range of services to support its activities. The services include (i) infrastructure services such as operations, financial control, trading, marketing and investor relations, legal, compliance, office administration, payroll and employee benefits and (ii) services relating to the dealing in and management of investments, arrangement of deals and advising on investments. TFG Asset Management has implemented a cost-allocation methodology with the objective of allocating service-related costs, including to Tetragon’s investment manager, in a consistent, fair, transparent and commercially based manner. TFG Asset Management then charges fees to Tetragon’s investment manager for the services allocated to it on a cost-recovery basis that is designed to achieve full recovery of the allocated costs. Tetragon’s Independent Directors, who are specifically mandated to approve, among other things, related-party transactions, are required to approve the methodology for allocating costs and in their sole discretion the application of that methodology as part of their oversight processes. As such, the annual cost allocation methodology update and the actual annual cost allocations that result based on these cost methodology policies and procedures are separately approved by the Independent Directors.
There are conflicts of interest created by contemporaneous trading by Tetragon’s investment manager and investment managers that are part of TFG Asset Management.
Risks Relating to Tetragon’s Legal Environment and Regulation
Changes in laws or regulations or accounting standards, or a failure to comply with any laws and regulations or accounting standards, may adversely affect Tetragon’s business, investments and results of operations.
Tetragon has and may become involved in litigation that may adversely affect Tetragon’s business, investments and results of operations.
No formal corporate governance code applies to Tetragon under Dutch law and Tetragon reports against the AIC Corporate Governance Guide for Investment Companies (which incorporates the UK Corporate Governance Code) on a voluntary basis only.
The rights of the non-voting shareholders and the fiduciary duties owed by the Board of Directors to Tetragon will be governed by Guernsey law and its articles of incorporation and may differ from the rights and duties owed to companies under the laws of other countries.
Tetragon’s shares are subject to restrictions on transfers to certain shareholders located in the United States or who are U.S. persons, which may impact the price and liquidity of the shares.
Tetragon’s shares are not intended for European retail investors. Tetragon anticipates that its typical investors will be institutional and professional investors who wish to invest for the long term and who have experience in investing in financial markets and collective investment undertakings and are capable themselves of evaluating the merits and risks of Tetragon shares and who have sufficient resources both to invest in potentially illiquid securities and to be able to bear any losses (which may equal the whole amount invested) that may result from the investment.
Tetragon is not, and does not intend to become, regulated as an investment company under the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940 and related rules.
Risks Relating to Taxation
United States investors may suffer adverse tax consequences because Tetragon is treated as a passive foreign investment company (PFIC) for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
Changes to tax treatment of derivative instruments may adversely affect Tetragon and certain tax positions it may take may be successfully challenged.
Investors may suffer adverse tax consequences if Tetragon is treated as resident in the United Kingdom or the United States for tax purposes.
Coronavirus and Public Health Emergency Risks
In 2020, there was an outbreak of a novel and highly contagious form of coronavirus, or COVID-19, which the World Health Organization declared to constitute a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern”. The outbreak of COVID-19 resulted in numerous deaths, adversely impacted global commercial activity and contributed to significant volatility in many equity and debt markets globally. Many governments and businesses reacted by instituting quarantines and other social distancing measures, prohibitions on travel (including on the movement of people and goods between countries), material monetary and/or fiscal policy changes, and the closure of offices, businesses, schools, retail stores and other public venues. Such measures, as well as the general uncertainty surrounding the dangers and impact of COVID-19, have created significant disruption in supply chains and economic activity and have had a particularly adverse impact on transportation, hospitality, tourism, entertainment and other industries.
Any public health emergency, including any outbreak of COVID-19, SARS, H1N1/09 flu, avian flu, other coronavirus, Ebola or other existing or new epidemic diseases, or the threat thereof, could have a significant adverse impact on Tetragon and could adversely affect its ability to fulfil its investment objectives. The spread of COVID-19 creates a variety of potential risks. The magnitude and duration of these risks cannot be predicted at this time.
The extent of the impact of any public health emergency on Tetragon’s investments’ operational and financial performance will depend on many factors, including the duration and scope of such public health emergency, the extent of any related travel advisories and restrictions implemented, the impact of such public health emergency on overall supply and demand (consumer and industrial), goods and services, investor liquidity, consumer confidence and levels of economic activity and the extent of its disruption to important global, regional and local supply chains and economic markets, disruptions to shipping and other transportation, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. The effects of a public health emergency may materially and adversely impact the value and performance of Tetragon’s investments, Tetragon’s ability to source, manage and divest investments and its ability to achieve its investment objectives, all of which could result in significant losses to Tetragon. In addition, the operations of Tetragon’s investments may be significantly impacted, or even temporarily or permanently halted, as a result of government quarantine measures, voluntary and precautionary restrictions on travel or meetings and other factors related to a public health emergency, including operational disruptions and its potential adverse impact on the health of any such entity’s personnel and reduced efficiency due to illness of a portion of the workforce or the need to work remotely. Tetragon’s key vendors and service providers, such as providers of outsourced accounting services, consultants and external counsel, are also subject to these risks.
Risks Resulting from the United Kingdom’s Exit from the European Union
The United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union on 31 January 2020. This is referred to as Brexit. In connection with Brexit, the United Kingdom and the European Union agreed the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, or TCA, that governs the future trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union in specified areas. The TCA took effect from 1 January 2021 following a transition period that commenced immediately following the Brexit date.
The United Kingdom is no longer in the European Union customs union and is outside of the European Union single market. As a result, logistical disruption is expected whilst the United Kingdom and European Union implement the new relationship under the TCA. Notably, the TCA does not include a EU-wide cooperation arrangement for financial services, with U.K. firms instead having to negotiate individual European Union member state regulations and cooperation/recognition arrangements. The initial timeframe set to agree a financial services cooperation framework may be subject to extension and a cooperation agreement on financial services is not guaranteed. The uncertainty surrounding the implementation of the TCA and the outcome of ongoing negotiations may have economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory and other implications for the asset management industry, the broader European and global financial markets generally and for Tetragon. This uncertainty is likely to continue to impact the global economic climate and may impact opportunities, pricing, availability and cost of bank financing, regulation, values or exit opportunities of companies or assets based, doing business, or having service or other significant relationships in, the United Kingdom or the European Union, including companies or assets held or considered for prospective investment by Tetragon.
The future application of EU-based legislation and/or taxation to the private fund industry in the United Kingdom will depend, among other things, on how the United Kingdom negotiates its relationship with the European Union as regards financial services. There can be no assurance that any negotiated laws, taxation and/or regulations will not have an adverse impact on Tetragon and its investments. The ongoing effects of Brexit may result in significant market dislocation, heightened counterparty risk, an adverse effect on the management of market risk and, in particular, asset and liability management (due in part to redenomination of financial assets and liabilities), an adverse effect on Tetragon and increased legal, regulatory or compliance burden on Tetragon, each of which may have a negative impact on the operations, financial condition, returns or prospects of Tetragon.
Whilst the most immediate impacts of Brexit on corporate transactions will likely be related to changes in market conditions, the development of new regulatory regimes and parallel competition law enforcement may have an adverse impact on transactions, particularly those occurring in, or impacted by conditions in, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
Risks Relating to the Conflict in Ukraine
On February 24, 2022, the Russian military commenced a full-scale invasion of Russia’s forces into Ukraine and the conflict is currently ongoing. In response, the United States, United Kingdom, the European Union and other countries imposed sanctions designed to target the Russian financial system. Further sanctions may be forthcoming, and the United States and allied countries have announced they are committed to taking steps to prevent certain Russian banks from accessing international payment systems. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the resulting displacement of persons both within Ukraine and to neighbouring countries and the increasing international sanctions could have a negative impact on the economy and business activity globally and therefore could adversely affect the performance of Tetragon’s investments. Furthermore, given the ongoing and evolving nature of the conflict between the two nations and its ongoing escalation (such as Russia’s decision to place its nuclear forces on high alert and the possibility of significant cyberwarfare against military and civilian targets globally), it is difficult to predict the conflict’s ultimate impact on global economic and market conditions, and, as a result, the situation presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to Tetragon and the performance of its investments and operations, and the ability of Tetragon to achieve its investment objective.